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Chiller Effectiveness: Screening, Inspection and Maintenance


Thorough chiller maintenance can extend the everyday living of products, make improvements to its reliability, save scarce refrigerant, and lower vitality and other functioning expenditures even though obtaining you time to perform out a extensive-assortment plan.

Testing and inspection

You’ll require structure requirements, tools manuals and repair record for every element, and a expense heritage for invest in, repairs and procedure. Are some factors receiving more repairs and costing additional than many others? Are annual strength expenses increasing quicker than charge increases? Have new charges exceeded past expenses? Are your prices greater than prices at other related amenities? Are they higher than averages from your professional association? You’ll want to do this tests each and every yr or two, so set up a recordkeeping process if you don’t have one. Come to a decision if you want to check in-household or use an inspection company with the instrumentation and experienced know-how.

If you make your mind up on a specialist, your maintenance staff will have to convert on and set the procedure for the inspector, improve travel ratios, increase dampers if essential, exchange worn components, and exhibit the inspector exactly where panels and devices are located. Inform your devices vendor and consulting engineer about the inspection so they can provide structure facts about the initial procedure.

You can need to have to carry out air balance, water equilibrium and audio screening. The components analyzed are:

• air-transferring products
• source and exhaust admirers
• diffusers and grilles
• water-balance factors
• circulating water pumps
• cooling towers
• chillers
• air- and water-cooled condensers
• ducting.

A equilibrium take a look at on a packaged device takes about a working day on created-up units, at minimum two or 3 times or more for multi-zone or multi-unit units. All testing devices need to be calibrated inside 6 months of tests.

Air-equilibrium testing

You can expect to want to do air-stability screening 1st since process air have to be in harmony for water-equilibrium screening to carry on effectively. Unique resources and instrumentation utilized are:

• scorching wire anemometer
• rotating vane anemometer
• self-timing speed counter
• pitot tubes 18-60 inches
• velocity meters
• clamp-on ammeter
• static tips
• quite a few 8-inch stem thermometers
• motorized psychrometer
• hand sling psychrometer
• micromanometer
• inclined gages 3-inch and 10-inch
• multi-stage surface area pyrometer
• combustion check sets
• electric drill motors
• balancing hoods
• pyrometer
• recording thermometers
• smoke gun
• and two-way radios.

The approach consists of tests and altering blower rpm to style and design motor real vs. full load amps pitot tube traverse of offer ducts and structure CFM of fans method provide and exhaust static pressures design vs. precise recirculating air style and design CFM of outside the house air getting into wet and dry bulb air temperatures exiting wet and dry bulb air temperatures changing all provide and return air ducts and zones to style CFM modifying just about every diffuser grille and sign-up to in just additionally or minus 10 % of structure prerequisites FPM velocity at just about every diffuser, grille and sign up and adjustments to limit drafts. Also, all controls need to be checked for right calibration and configurations.

Water-harmony testing

Water-harmony screening should be accomplished only after air-harmony tests is finish and the air method is adequately balanced. In addition to the previously mentioned applications, you may want water-force gages, a differential gage set for reading through orifice and venturi stations, and meter sets for looking through velocity and movement. You may also need vibration analyzers, and air and water air pollution check products.

The water-balancing course of action includes:

• starting up and location all controls to suitable settings
• taking away and cleaning strainers
• analyzing water for correct procedure and cleaning
• checking pump rotation
• verifying that enlargement tanks are billed and not air or water certain
• examining air vents at major of water system to guarantee that they are installed and functioning
• location temperature controls to whole cooling
• examining running temperatures of chiller and boilers
• creating absolutely sure that chilled water pumps are calibrated for suitable GPM shipping
• examining existing and return water temperatures
• examining chiller water stream strain
• monitoring water and balance temperatures at inlet aspect of cooling coils
• checking stress fall as a result of coils and stream fee
• monitoring pump functioning suction and discharge pressures.

Listing all pump mechanical technical specs, motor rated and jogging amps and water metering unit readings.

Audio testing

Previous units loosen up, get misaligned or probably had been not properly audio insulated when put in. Comprehensive audio testing working with decibel meters and vibration analysis is a part of the tests and inspection. Audio exams contain track record seem degree with products off, complete sound amount with gear on, and correction of seem level to tools only. Sound degrees are when compared with building technical specs utilizing readings in decibels. Gear vibration absorbers and insulation are checked for success.

Chiller repair

Ahead of completing repairs, make absolutely sure you’ve got complied with all basic safety precautions, this sort of as donning personal protecting gear and undertaking lockout and tagout techniques. The most typical repairs essential as a final result of check knowledge are cleaning and insignificant changes. All systems require filter and duct cleansing on the air side at minimum the moment a year. If the filters are restricted and duct joints are adequately sealed or taped, cleansing will not likely be a huge job, and the air process will be additional economical. Water, oil and refrigerant sample assessments suggest the equipment’s affliction. If there’s water in the refrigerant, seals ought to be changed. If there is refrigerant, rusted metallic or metal filings in the oil sample, examine the seals, piping, bearings and rotary or reciprocating aspects for have on.

Generate gears, bearings, belts and couplings will previous for many years with a great PM approach. They ought to be checked at the very least annually, even if fluids really don’t point out a issue. V-belt drives really should be restricted on the bottom and slack on prime among the sheaves for far more arc of get hold of and significantly less slipping. If the sheave groove bottoms are dazzling, the V-belts are bottoming out and will slip. Possibly modify the V-belts if they’re worn or modify the sheaves if they have been slipping and the V-grooves are worn. Worn sheaves will rapidly wreck new V-belts.

If belt plies are separated, transform the belts. If they’re unfastened plenty of so that urgent them in the center concerning the sheaves moves them extra than a single thickness of the belt, realign them with a straight edge then tighten them. Loosen the motor anchor bolts, back the motor away from the pushed sheave by turning the motor frame modifying screw less than the motor until the belts are adequately tensioned.
Bearings and gears shielded with the right sum and style of clean up lubricant can run hotter than you can contact — additional than 110 degrees — for several years without complications. Even new lubricant is not flawlessly thoroughly clean, so in-line oil filters are a excellent financial commitment. Frequent filter inspection and improve will uncover problems in advance of they develop into really serious. Pillow block bearings should really not be greased far too usually. Generally, a couple of pictures once each and every a few to 6 months is adequate. Seals can be damaged by overlubrication. Remove the reduction plug prior to adding grease, and allow for the bearing to operate awhile to discharge the excess. Check out the colour and texture for indicators of rust, metal, water or other contamination. Rubber gloves and security eyeglasses or whole confront security ought to be worn where acidic refrigerant could be existing.

Security checks

Normal PM protection and electrical checks are an crucial component of your once-a-year exam and inspection system. Your system documentation will show:

• where these equipment are positioned
• what checks to conduct
• how to conduct them, and how typically
• what tools you want.


Begin by talking to the requester or tenant to get a description of the dilemma. For case in point, if the challenge is in a package deal heating and A/C device, uncover out if it truly is a cooling or heating challenge, or equally. Generally get started with the clear:

• Is power having to the procedure?
• Are the fuses and fused swap contacts superior?
• Are circuit breaker contacts clear and restricted?

If the heating works but the cooling doesn’t, this possibly gets rid of the heating circuit controls. Observe operation to confirm this. When you’ve narrowed the options, hop-scotch the electrical circuit in the region of the dilemma with a voltmeter, set to the circuit’s voltage range. Hold the circuit diagram helpful — commonly inside of the electrical panel doorway or in the functioning and service manual. From time to time a microswitch or relay sticks open up. If you find an open up swap — no voltage in which a voltage ought to be present — which need to be closed when the circuit is energized, faucet it a handful of occasions with an insulated screwdriver cope with. If this results in the technique to resume procedure, switch off the procedure, convert it back on, and repeat the examination.
If this confirms that the switch is faulty, change it. Then try out the method once again to make absolutely sure it truly is the only difficulty, and that the replacement was done thoroughly. When applying a tester, it can be superior exercise to use an alligator clip on 1 lead. Only 1 hand is necessary to do the screening with the other probe.

Damper leakage

Lots of trouble calls from poor temperature are from too substantial a temperature in the duct or temperature time lag. Way too superior a temperature may perhaps be because of to providing blended air at, say, 62 levels, when it should be 54-58 degrees. Temperature time lag is too very long a time to interesting the air during the modulating period resulting in a sensation of discomfort. As considerably as 35 percent of every month functioning fees can be owing to payment for leakage. To suitable this difficulty and decrease your working costs at the same time, test the zone mixing dampers for leakage. Delicate foam plastic on the major edges of blades seals them far better when they are closed. Leaking dampers also raise the sounds stage.

Handbook dampers need to be installed off the experience of multi-zone units it’ll present precise adjustment of total movement. Diffuser, aspect wall or automated dampers are only intended for good adjustment. Look at their linkages and range of movement. You cannot industry air balance your process without having the correct selection of dampers in the correct position.

Preventive/predictive maintenance

Plan PM for most usually used chillers — electrical centrifugal, electric powered reciprocating and absorption — consists of annual lube oil, oil filter component and refrigerant filter-dryer cartridge variations. Oil sampling and inspection for bearing or gear use particles is performed as very well as checking magnetic plugs in the oil reservoir.
Rust particles originate in the condenser and suggest air and dampness in the refrigerant technique. Chemical analysis of each the refrigerant and oil produce worthwhile info about the existence and source of contaminants. Fluid leak exams are manufactured 2 times a calendar year, except if lower fluid amounts indicate the will need to exam additional commonly. Leaks in the refrigerant method of air and non-condensable gases are ideal handled by normal purges. Clean tubes following each time and inspect for corrosion, erosion, anxiety corrosion and exhaustion induced by thermal tension. Normally use a water treatment method specialist for preliminary charging of a new procedure and for ongoing monitoring. Recent testing instruments can detect tube cracks early exchange the tubes as quickly as they’re uncovered.

The water answer of lithium bromide utilised as a refrigerant in absorption chillers is pretty corrosive. It assaults metal, copper and copper alloys in 300 F air or bigger. Use corrosion inhibitors in the company-suggested variety look at it 2 times a time. Also look at alkalinity and existence of ammonia, copper or iron which may well be current in compact (sections for every million) portions. Water strainers and traps need to be checked, cleaned and altered every year.

Vibration investigation of rotating equipment at the bearings ought to be finished for the duration of operation to verify for bearing and equipment dress in, bent shafts, imbalance in enthusiast and blower blades, and coupling or other misalignment in air dealing with tools, water pumps, chillers and motors. Infrared scanning of electrical switches, circuit breakers, motors and gear boxes will detect overheating problems and enable determine unfastened or corroded electrical contacts, hot motor windings, bad bearings and gears and lower oil ranges. These predictive maintenance inspections should really be carried out at least yearly following creating a baseline or normal looking through at each individual place — and do them just before the major shutdowns so conclusions can be analyzed in time to choose what repairs are demanded. This tactic permits direct time for obtaining spares, particular applications and machines and preparing the function.

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